Miéville was born in London, England, where he currently lives. When he was eighteen, he lived and taught English in Egypt, where he developed an interest in Arab culture and Middle Eastern politics. Miéville has a B.A. in social anthropology from Cambridge and a master's with distinction and PhD from the London School of Economics.
He stood unsuccessfully for the British House of Commons in the 2001 General Election as a candidate for the Socialist Alliance. He is a member of the British Socialist Workers Party, and his left-wing politics colour his writing (they are particularly evident in Iron Council, his fourth novel).
His first novel, King Rat, was nominated for both an International Horror Guild and Bram Stoker awards. Perdido Street Station won the Arthur C. Clarke Award and was nominated for the Hugo, Nebula and World Fantasy awards. His third, The Scar, has been nominated for the 2003 Arthur C. Clarke and World Fantasy awards.